Heterogeneous effects


  1. von Hippel, Paul T. and Bellows, Laura. (2018). “How Much Does Teacher Quality Vary Across Teacher Preparation Programs? Reanalyzing Estimates from 6 States.” Economics of Education Review. Also available as an SSRN working paper: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2990498
  2. von Hippel, P. T., Bellows. L., Osborne, C., Lincove, J., & Mills, N. (2016). “Teacher quality differences between teacher preparation programs: How big? How reliable? Which programs are different?” Economics of Education Review 53: 31-45. Also available as SSRN working paper 2506935.
  3. von Hippel, P.T. (2015). “The heterogeneity statistic I2 can be biased in small meta-analyses.” BMC Medical Research Methodology 15:35.


  1. von Hippel, P.T., & Bellows, L. The caterpillar command for Stata